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Did You Know?

Bloating can be one of the adverse side effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

While not typically thought of as being associated with menopause, bloating is one of the most frequently experienced symptoms. This is closely related to an increase in intestinal gas and fluid retention caused by fluctuating hormones, and may also be associated with weight gain. A symptom commonly associated with the menstrual cycle, women who have dealt with bloating in the past during PMS will likely recognize this symptom as a part of menopause.

Read on to learn more about bloating, its causes, and the treatment options available for managing symptoms.

What is Bloating

About Bloating


Bloating - defined as a feeling of fullness or tightness in the abdominal area that can lead to a certain degree of discomfort or pain - is mainly experienced during the menopausal transition as a result of either water retention, increased intestinal gas, or a combination of both.

The duration and intensity will vary for each woman, with some women experiencing bloating for a few days and then not again for a year, or possibly for several months at a time. A woman can wake up with a flat stomach and then have her stomach distend progressively throughout the day, or the bloating may appear within a matter of minutes and be aggravated by eating.

Symptoms of bloating

Symptoms of Bloating

As bloating can vary in duration and intensity, so too can the symptoms vary among menopausal women. The image to the right shows which are the most commonly experienced symptoms of bloating.

It is important to understand why bloating happens so frequently among women of menopausal age in order to better understand this symptom. Keep reading to learn more about the causes of bloating.

Symptoms of Bloating
Upper or Lower Stomach Bloating: The Differences

Irritable bowel syndrome affects at least one in six adults in the United States. According to current data, irritable bowel syndrome is the most common reason for a patient to be referred to a gastroenterologist, or a type of doctor who specializes in digestive diseases.

5 Best Tips for Relieving Bloating

Bloating is often uncomfortable, distracting, and can lead to burping and gas. Bloating is caused when a person swallows air and by certain foods that release gas when they are digested. You can relieve bloating by adjusting how you eat and what you eat. Click here to read more.

Causes of Bloating

Hormonal causes

While bloating can occur as a result of such factors as diet or stress, the most likely cause for menopausal women is a fluctuation in hormone levels, particularly estrogen. Estrogen is important for two reasons. First, it has an effect on the retention of water that occurs naturally as part of a woman's menstrual cycle. Women tend to retain more in the days leading up to menstruation as a result of the rising estrogen levels. When estrogen levels become erratic during perimenopause, so does the incidence of water retention, leading to bloating.

In addition, estrogen influences the production of bile, a substance produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder that aids in the digestion of fats. When fats are not as thoroughly digested, bloating can result.

In addition to the important role of estrogen in abdominal bloating, there are other causes that may influence digestion.

Causes of Bloating

Other causes

Aside from water retention and decreased bile production, the other most common cause of bloating is the prominence of intestinal gas. Anywhere from 30 - 60% of menopausal women report an increase in gas during this time period, leading researchers to believe that hormonal fluctuations also play a role in the production of gas.

Common foods that cause bloating and gas

Intestinal gas can also be caused by changes in diet, irritable bowel syndrome, swallowing air, carbonated beverages, or lactose intolerance.

Other factors that less commonly induce bloating in women include abdominal surgery, obesity, weakened abdominal muscles due to pregnancy, or other rarer medical conditions including gallstones, diabetes, or kidney disease.

To learn more about the treatment options available to relieve bloating, read below.

Stomach Pain and Bloating: Causes and Solutions

Bloating tends to happen on women's periods because of the changes in estrogen. These changes make it more likely for women's bodies to retain water, which leads to the typical bloating. It may also be because women tend to change their dietary habits during their period, which alters how their body digests the food.

Tips to Avoid Bloating during Menopause

Bloating is a common symptom of the menopausal transition. It can be caused by a number of things, including excess water retention, high salt intake, stress, and dietary choices. Click on the following link to learn more about the causes and ways to treat bloating during menopause.

Bloating Treatments

Did You Know?

Bananas, grapes, eggs, rice, peanut butter, fruit juices, herbal teas, yogurt, and hard cheese can help reduce gas and fight bloating.

Fortunately, there are many treatment options that can target bloating. It is generally recommended that women begin with the least invasive option, which would be lifestyle changes. Particularly if the bloating is caused by excessive intestinal gas, some dietary changes can be extremely beneficial. Cutting out dairy products, sodium, and trigger foods such as onions, beans, and sugary snacks can negate instances of bloating. Stress reduction techniques such as yoga or meditation can also help.

While lifestyle changes can positively impact symptoms, they are the most difficult to implement. Also, because bloating in menopausal women is primarily caused by fluctuating estrogen levels, it is best to treat the problem directly at the source. Several natural and alternative remedies exist that can address this imbalance. Most of the time, this is the safest, easiest, and most effective way to fight bloating.

Treating Bloating

In the drastic case of bloating becoming prolonged or painful, or if a woman is experiencing other disturbing symptoms, consulting a trusted medical professional is recommended. While there are pharmaceutical options to curb bloating, these are serious potential side effects involved with these treatments.

Most experts recommend that women who suffer from bloating and wish to treat it begin with lifestyle changes, then move onto alternative medicine, and finally, look to medications if nothing else seems to work. Click on the following link to learn specific treatments for bloating in these three categories.

4 Helpful Tips for Relieving Abdominal Pain and Bloating

Abdominal pain and bloating are common issues that are horribly uncomfortable, but they can be easily solved through lifestyle changes. Bloating is often caused by certain triggers, such as trouble foods. This article gives hints and tips on lifestyle habits that will relieve abdominal pain and bloating

3 Foods That Help Prevent Bloating during Menopause

Many menopause symptoms can be controlled with changes to dietary habits, and bloating is no exception. This article explains what bloating is and why it occurs and also gives hints and tips on the kinds of foods to eat in order to help prevent it.

  • Heitkemper, M.M. & Chang, L. (2009). Do Fluctuations in Ovarian Hormones Affect Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Women With Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Gender Medicine, 6(Suppl 2), 152-167. doi: 10.1016/j.genm.2009.03.004
  • Office on Women's Health. (2012). Menopause and menopause treatments fact sheet. Retrieved April 26, 2016, from
  • Stachenfeld, N.S. (2008). Sex Hormone Effects on Body Fluid Regulation. Exercise and Sports Science Reviews, 36(3), 152-159. doi: 10.1097/JES.0b013e31817be928

General articles

Updated on Sep 24, 2018
What to Take for Bloating
What to take for a bloated stomach includes natural supplements, over-the-counter options, and hormone-regulating supplements. For increased effectiveness, keep our further recommendations in mind. Find out more here.
Updated on Jul 16, 2018
Severe Bloating: Important Things to Know
Certain medications may make it more likely for you to experience bloating. If you are taking these medications and also experience another factor causing bloating, your bloating may be more severe. Talk to your doctor if you think your medication is behind your severe abdominal bloating.
Updated on Dec 01, 2016
Chronic Constant Bloating: Important Things to Know
Chronic constant bloating is a symptom of certain lifestyle habits or allergies, and there are so many different possible factors, it can be hard to know exactly what is causing it. This article lists some of things to know about chronic constant bloating in middle-aged women.
Updated on Aug 01, 2016
Can Healthy Foods Reduce Bloating?
Most people experience bloating at some point in their lives, and the finger is often pointed at the diet, with many believing that a healthier diet will lead to less bloating. But is it really so simple? This article addresses the question of whether healthy foods have the ability to reduce bloating.
Updated on Jun 03, 2016
How to Reduce Bloating Fast
Many people experience bloating after eating and are not sure of the best ways to deal with it. It can be uncomfortable, but avoiding foods that trigger bloating does not have to be a big sacrifice. This article lists some of the most effective ways to reduce bloating quickly and easily.